Saffron – 8 Powerful Scientifically Backed Health Benefits and Side Effects

Saffron Health Benefits and Side Effects

Saffron is a threaded spice, made from the dried stigma of the Saffron Crocus flower (Crocus sativus L. Iridaceae) or Crocus Sativa flower. Saffron is a light cooking ingredient that has a deep fragrance, strong flavor, and a bright yellow and red tinge.

What Is Saffron?

By the ounce, high-quality saffron costs more than gold, making it the most expensive spices (per pound) in the world. Saffron costs around 5000$ per pound, behind vanilla pods which are around 600$ per pound.

The reason why saffron is so expensive is because harvesting the stigmas of the crocus flower (the strands in the center) is very labour intensive. Every acre of land (4046 m²) makes 4 pounds of saffron.

Each crocus flower yields only 3 stigmas, which are then picked by hand and dried. Each crocus saffron stigma makes a single strand of saffron.

Its complex fragrance is at once flowery, grassy like hay, and sweet like honey, making highly sought after by professional and home cooks.

Saffron is a healthy spice that has an equally complex flavor profile, starting out floral and sweet with a slightly bitter, earthy finish on the tongue’s palate. Just a pinch can add color a dish in its signature bright, orange and gold hue.

Outside of western Europe and the United States, the saffron spice is also known as autumn crocus, azafran, kashmira, kesar, and kumkuma.

The 3 primary plant-based compounds found in saffron are:

  • Picrocrocin: The chemical compounds responsible for the taste of saffron.

  • Crocin: The chemical compound responsible for the color.

  • Safranal: The chemical compound responsible for the aroma.

A large part of saffron’s health benefits, fragrance, and taste were discovered and used since 1250, mostly used by the wealthy.

Because of saffron’s delicate nature, no machinery can be used to extract saffron from the crocus flower. Producting and harvesting saffron must be entirely done by hand.

A maximum of only three strands can be extracted from a single flower, and it must then be carefully dried. Each undried strand is 0.00215 grams. To accumulate a single pound of saffron (16 ounces or 454 grams), it takes roughly 70,000 flowers.

A single serving of this treasured spice costs between 5 to 10$. Fortunately, very few dishes require more than half a teaspoon of saffron, which should cost less than 5$.

Cultivation of Saffron

The saffron plant is called the saffron crocus flower (Crocus sativus), the crocus flower is a perennial plant that’s capable of cloning itself, its harvested only through October to mid-November.

Growing saffron is very labour intensive, as saffron crocus flowers thrive in dry and hot regions like the Mediterranean shrubland (maquis) or the Himalayan foothills of Kashmir.

It’s grown and cultivated in very hot climates, including Iran, India, Afghanistan, Italy, France, United States, Spain, Greece, and a negligible amount in a few other countries.

Iranian saffron produces up to 95% of the entire world’s saffron supply and exportations, while the majority of the remaining 5% is produced in the Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.

Saffron crocus flowers are sensitive plants, it needs to remain in dry heat. If the ground becomes consistently moist, predators and rot can destroy it. The highly specific soil and climate requirements add to the rarity and expense of saffron.

Initially, saffron grew wild and was harvested when it was available. This variation of the plant is called Crocus Cartwrightianus, which features a short red stigma (the center of the flower, where pollen receptors are located).

This predecessor species of saffron reproduced using seeds. Over the last few thousand years, the Crocus Sativa flower was developed, having much longer strands making the cultivation process more efficient.

Saffron is a sterile plant, meaning it can only reproduce by cloning itself. This species of crocus was developed to help increase availability, keep a consistent rarity, and high price.

Origins and History of Saffron

Saffron’s place of origin is unclear, though it may have originated in ancient Persia (modern-day Iran), Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), Minoan civilization era, or Ancient Greece.

Historical records show that the first known era of cultivation was in the Bronze Age of Greece between 2800 and 1250 BC. From there, saffron’s popularity had spread into East Asia, North Africa, and eventually North America as a rare herb in the spice trade.

Saffron has been an expensive, rare, and highly prized possession among cooks and gourmands for over 2,000 years. Saffron has been used in Greek, North African, and Middle Eastern cuisines.

Saffron has historically been used as a key ingredient in clothing dyes and perfumes, though this is very uncommon these days.

As of the last 200 years, saffron is used primarily as a culinary spice and for all of its scientifically proven health benefits. Many dishes require saffron and others that are greatly enhanced by using this vibrant spice.

Culinary Uses and Recipes

Saffron is used in a large range of traditional recipes, saffron pairs well with a wide variety of both sweet and savory foods. A single saffron thread (Crocus Sativus stigmas) can take up to 12 hours to fully release its flavor, this makes it ideal for slow cooking recipes as well.

An ever-growing trend has also been making saffron tea, instead of using it with other food.

Some of the foods that go well with saffron include:

When looking to use saffron strands in your recipes, there are 2 different methods of preparation that are necessary before adding saffron to any dish.

Saffron crocus red stigmas flower saffron

Toasting Saffron

Depending on the recipe and foods used, it’s usually best to toast your saffron strands lightly on a stovetop at medium-high heat to bring out its full fragrance and flavor.

Saffron strands are very sensitive, make sure to not dry out or burn the strands when toasting or cooking with saffron. Once toasted and dry, saffron can be added to your dish to enhance the flavor.

The only exception to toasting is Persian saffron, Persian saffron is already dried and would burn if heated.

Steeping and Diluting Saffron

The second method for preparing saffron requires dilution (steeping). This process is to extract the flavors, nutritious plant-based compounds, and color into warm water or any other steeping liquid.

This method is best for saucy or highly liquid recipes as this brings out the fragrance, taste, and color by steeping the saffron in water or broth.

When making specialized rice dishes such as Spanish or Mexican rice dish or risotto, steeping saffron is a must. The same is true for water-based foods such as soups, stews, chilis, and marinated protein dishes.

Traditional Methods of Cooking With Saffron

Traditionally, saffron has been used in savory Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dishes for centuries. Due to the cultural transmission of Islam, it has also been integrated into the cuisine of southern Spain and northern Africa.

In Spain, for example, roasted chicken is rubbed with saffron and stuffed with lemons, accenting the aroma and bitter notes of the saffron spice.

In Iran, its a staple in a traditional Persian rice-based dish called Chelo ba Tahdig. This is a steamed rice dish loaded with walnuts and onions, in which the rice is parboiled then crisped up into a large patty.

In the Valencia region of coastal Spain, rice is once again mixed with saffron to make a bed for seared prawns, lobster, or crayfish in the specialty dish called Seafood Paella.

And finally, throughout the Middle East saffron is used in Shorbat el Adas (middle eastern lentil soup). This soup uses steeped saffron to its best advantage for its aromatics, flavor enhancements, and bright yellow color.

Lentils are crushed and mixed with sauteed onions and rice, slow-cooked to breakdown all of the ingredients down into a paste. This decadent, spicy soup can also be served as a vegan dish and topped with sour cream or labneh (Middle Eastern yogurt).

Saffron’s Nutrition Facts

Saffron is a nutrient-dense cooking spice that’s sold and measured in ounces, which amounts to a metric weight of 28 grams. Each serving of saffron contains:

  • 87 calories
  • 1 gram of fiber, saffron is low in fiber as compared to other cooking spices
  • 1.5 grams of fats, which includes antioxidants such as polyphenols and carotenoids
  • 3 grams of protein, adds hardiness, richness, and density to vegetarian, vegan, and ketogenic dishes
  • 18 grams of carbohydrates (0 grams of which are sugars), making saffron very keto and paleo-friendly
  • Vitamins including vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin D, and folic acid
  • Minerals including potassium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, thiamin, folate, riboflavin, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, selenium, and sodium
wooden spoon filled with saffron

Saffron Health Benefits

There are many scientifically proven health benefits to eating saffron. What sets this spice apart from other herbs and spices is that it has thousands of extensive and proven studies from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH).

The nutritional profile of saffron will help anyone improve their health by adding a wide range of healthy fats, antioxidants, protein, and fiber.

Saffron’s nutritional benefits don’t breakdown over high-heat or slow cooking. Which makes it a versatile spice for many different cooking methods.

One ounce of saffron is highly nutrient-dense, containing only 87 calories and no cholesterol, making it very lightweight, easy to digest, and heart-healthy. Only 30 mg of saffron per day is required to get all of its health benefits with minimal side effects.

1. Saffron is a powerful antioxidant

Saffron contains many healthy plant-based compounds, fatty acids, and antioxidants which help your body defend against oxidative stress and free radicals. The list of antioxidants found in saffron include:

  • Carotenoids: crocin, crocetin, and safranal
  • Flavanols, flavonoids, and flavones: kaempferol, rutin, quercetin, and naringin
  • Polyphenols: gallic acid, cinnamic acid, gentisic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, t-ferulic acid, salicylic acid, caffeic acid, and pyrogallol

Crocin and crocetin are both carotenoids, carotenoids are pigments that give saffron as well as other herbs and spices their bright red color.

Saffron is full of healthy fatty acids that contain powerful antioxidants such as phenolic acids, coumarins, tannins, and flavonoids.

Antioxidants prevent oxidation produced by metabolic processes in the body, such as your metabolism, catabolism, and anabolism. Antioxidants have the following health benefits:

  • Strengthens the immune system
  • Boosts immune responses
  • Reduces the risk of cancer
  • Is highly anti-inflammatory
  • Prevents cell damage
  • Removes free radicals as well as prevents age-related degenerative diseases and illnesses
  • Boosts brain health
  • Antidepressant properties

2. Protects Against Cells Damage

All living organisms suffer from cell damage. Cell damage is caused by different stressors that make cells prone to oxidative and DNA-related damage caused by free radicals. This can be caused by a variety of different stressors such as:

  • Poor diet and a lack of nutrition
  • Environmental changes
  • Increased stress (cortisol hormone)
  • Physical injuries
  • Immunological changes
  • Radiation
  • Toxicity and chemical reactions
  • Natural biological changes

Multiple research studies have shown that saffron is a powerful superfood that can maintain and improve cell health.

Saffron protects the myelin sheaths (cell membrane) around the fat cells of neurons, which safeguard and transmit electrical pathways to and from the brain and nervous system.

Excessive cell damage can progressively destroy DNA during cell division, which can cause illnesses and disorders such as:

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Lewy Body Dementia
  • Type 2 Diabetes

Saffron is full of powerful antioxidants and healthy plant-based compounds that reduce oxidative stress caused by free radicals and external stressors.

Safranal, crocin, crocetin, kaempferol are antioxidants found in saffron that can help reduce oxidative and metabolic stressors. Reducing oxidative and metabolic stress can reduce symptoms of:

  • Irritability
  • Headaches
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms
  • Anxiety
  • Cravings
  • Inflammation and pain
  • Improves mood
  • Increases libido
saffron crocus flower

3. May Treat Mood Disorders and Symptoms of Depression

Anxiety, depression, and mood disorders are one of the most commonly diagnosed psychological disorders, affecting nearly 25.3 million people in the United States, close to 8% of the population.

Depression and other mood disorders are a devastating side effect of stress, a poor diet, personal relationships, or other life experiences.

Similar to conventional antidepressants, saffron exhibits similar results by improving and regulating certain chemicals in the brain, such as serotonin (a mood-elevating neurotransmitter).

This is due to all of the antioxidants and anti-inflammatory benefits of saffron. Crocetin, crocins, and safranal reduces inflammation and promotes a healthy brain chemical balance of:

  • Serotonin
  • Dopamine
  • Glutamate
  • Acetylcholine
  • Norepinephrine

Taking saffron regularly has been proven, in several scientific studies to promote good moods, reduce symptoms of depression, and reduce overall blood pressure.

Saffron was also tested against placebos in depression studies and found to be far more effective. According to a study conducted with 5 control groups, 30 mg of saffron is as effective as certain antidepressant drugs, such as:

  • Citalopram (Celexa)
  • Imipramine (Tofranil)
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac)

This class of medication is known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI), which are first level treatments for mild to moderate depressive disorders.

The results were not as effective as antidepressants, but the controlled groups suffered almost no side effects that are typically associated with antidepressants, including dry mouth, constipation, sexual dysfunction, urinary retention, and levels of sedation.

Always consult a medical professional before making changes to your diet, especially if suffering from a disorder like depression.

4. Reduces Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) affects more than 90% of menstruating women, usually before the end of the menstrual cycle (menses stage).

PMS has common side effects such as emotional deregulation, physical aching, headaches, fatigue, and behavioural changes.

A study conducted on women aged between 20 and 45 years old taking 30 mg of saffron extract supplements per day. After 4 months, 76% of women had a reduction in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and PMS symptoms by around 50%.

Multiple other research papers and studies have also shown that taking 30 mg of saffron per day has improved PMS symptoms such as:

  • Headaches
  • Body pains and aches
  • Irritability
  • Hunger cravings

Saffron’s antioxidants have anti-inflammatory properties, reducing the severity of menstrual cramps as well.

A scientific study found that being exposed to the scent of saffron for up to 20 minutes can be an effective form of aromatherapy, reducing PMS-induced anxiety and the production of cortisol (stress hormone).

5. Saffron Boosts Libido

Multiple studies have shown that saffron was able to reduce the risk of infertility problems and positive effects on erectile dysfunction (ED) as well as overall sex drive.

Saffron is an aphrodisiac food that increases sex drive and improves symptoms of sexual dysfunction, in both males and females. A list of aphrodisiac foods include:

  • Nuts such as pistachios, pine nuts, almonds, and walnuts
  • Spices such as saffron, cinnamon, cocoa powder (dark chocolate), fenugreek, red ginseng, maca, garlic, vanilla, and nutmeg
  • Vegetables such as pumpkin, celery, and asparagus
  • Fruits such as apples, bananas, figs, avocados, pomegranates, watermelon, strawberries, and cherries
  • Spicy food such as chillies and other peppers
  • Seafood such as salmon and oysters
  • Red wine
  • Coffee
  • Eggs

There are 5 studies conducted on 173 individuals that have been given 30 mg of saffron supplements every day, for 4 weeks. After the 4 weeks, the patients improved erectile dysfunction and intercourse satisfaction.

Taking 30 mg of saffron per day is the minimum intake to benefit from all of its positive health effects.

Additionally, over the 4 weeks, taking saffron can counteract the libido-reducing effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants by increasing blood flow.

Saffron’s largest libido-related benefit is its ability to treat low libido in women, especially those on antidepressants. 4 separate studies have shown that saffron helped increase lubrication and reduce pain associated with sexual intercourse.

strands of saffron in a spoon

6. Promotes Weight Loss

Obesity and being overweight are rising global issues for decades now, which can lead to increased risks of cancer, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, strokes, as well as many other illnesses and diseases.

Saffron has many healthy plant-based compounds that help with weight loss, appetite suppression, as well as reducing urges and cravings.

This is due to many factors, primarily because saffron increases levels of serotonin in the brain which increases satisfaction and reduces the likelihood of overeating, which is also associated with weight gain.

Saffron is a healthy, vitamin and mineral-rich, low-calorie spice that improves the ability for dieters and regular individuals to lose weight.

The antioxidants crocin, crocetin, safranal, picrocrocin, have many health benefits that can help reduce weight and obesity-related illnesses and diseases such as:

  • Hypolipidemia: Saffron is hypolipidemic since it reduces bad (LDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, plaques, and nitric oxide levels in the bloodstream.
  • Hypoglycemia: Saffron is hypoglycemic and antidiabetic since it reduces insulin resistance, reduces fasted blood glucose levels, and overall cholesterol levels.
  • Depression: Saffron is an antidepressant since it improves the chemical balance in the brain and increases serotonin production.

When many psychological improvements, medical professionals theorize that the mood-elevating chemicals in saffron help to improve physical health.

All of these symptoms and illnesses can increase cravings and urges to overeat. Multiple studies have shown the effects saffron has on appetite suppression while increasing satiety, the feeling of fullness after eating.

7. Reduces The Risk of Cancer

Saffron is full of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that all help to increase the strength of your immune system. A stronger immune system allows for a better response and reduced risk of cancer.

The nutrients found in saffron itself are especially toxic to cancerous cells by increasing the frequency of apoptosis (triggered cell death) by the cancer cells.

Saffron also reduces the ability of cancer cells to express RNA and DNA synthesis, making it difficult and a much slower process for these cells to reproduce.

Crocin and crocetin are especially anticancerous and antitumorous, these effects have minimal side effects on regular healthy cells. Taking around 20 to 30 mg of saffron per day can severely negate this side effect.

Saffron Side Effects and Detriments

At normal doses, saffron has very few if any negative side effects, as the only times when saffron can be harmful is if you overeat it. Exceeding 5 grams (5000 mg) per day can potentially be very toxic, let alone expensive.

Taking up to 1.2 grams per day is generally safe, while at high doses saffron can be highly toxic, which symptoms usually include insomnia, nausea, and vomiting. Additionally, there are minor cases of allergic reactions caused by saffron.

For women, saffron should never be taken during pregnancy as it actively stimulates uterine contractions and drastically increases your chances of a miscarriage.

Other common side effects caused by eating an excess amount of saffron include:

  • Dry mouth
  • Increased anxiety
  • Dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, or vomiting
  • Asthma
  • Kidney damage
  • Severe lack of appetite
  • Headaches
  • Yellowing of skin or eyes
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Bleeding from the nose, lips, and eyelids

To save money, some companies will cut, powderize, and mix saffron powder with similar-looking substances and spices including safflower (often called “poor man’s saffron”), turmeric, or paprika.

While these are not harmful by themselves, adulterated saffron will not provide similar health benefits, which can also lead some people to overdose accidentally much easier.

1. May Cause a Miscarriage

Pregnant women should never take saffron as it can cause miscarriages, although lower dosages are generally considered safe for expecting mothers, it’s highly suggested to avoid it completely to avoid any unnecessary risks.

A study conducted on women working in saffron fields found that 89% of women who ate saffron regularly had a miscarriage. These rates were reduced the larger the number of miscarriages these women suffered.

Always consult your medical professional before including changes to your diet, including adding different herbs and spices.

Saffron is a versatile and highly underrated spice that is packed with vitamins and minerals, nutritious plant-based compounds, and antioxidants. Saffron’s been thoroughly studied and has many scientifically purported health benefits.

Despite its expensive price point, saffron has many health benefits and minimal side effects that are beneficial to nearly everyone.

Using small amounts of strands in a few dishes throughout the week will give you all of the health benefits without the risk of overconsuming.

Issues only arise is when you overeat saffron, anything above 1.2 grams is a lot. Saffron should definitely be avoided if you’re pregnant as it can trigger uterus contractions which could drastically increase the likelihood of a miscarriage.

Here’s the list of health benefits of saffron:

  1. Saffron is a powerful antioxidant
  2. Protects Against Cells Damage
  3. May Treat Mood Disorders and Symptoms of Depression
  4. Reduces Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
  5. Saffron Boosts Libido
  6. Promotes Weight Loss
  7. Reduces The Risk of Cancer

Here’s the list of side effects of saffron:

  1. May Cause a Miscarriage

When buying saffron, always buy saffron in its strand form as the powdered form can include many fillers. Saffron is very easy to add to your diet, using just 1 to 2 strands along with your carbohydrates is more than enough to get all of its nutrition.

Hundreds of scientific studies and research papers make saffron a must-include in your diet. Along with its wonderful flavor and bright yellow color, it can brighten up any recipe.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Is Saffron?

Saffron is a threaded spice, made from the dried stigma of the Saffron Crocus flower (Crocus sativus L. Iridaceae) or Crocus Sativa flower.

Saffron is a light cooking ingredient that has a deep fragrance, strong flavor, and a bright yellow and red tinge.

By the ounce, high-quality saffron costs more than gold, making it the most expensive spices (per pound) in the world.

Saffron costs around 5000$ per pound, behind vanilla pods which are around 600$ per pound.

How Is Saffron Grown?

Saffron is grown and cultivated in very hot climates, including Iran, India, Afghanistan, Italy, France, United States, Spain, Greece, and a negligible amount in a few other countries.

The saffron crocus flower is a perennial plant that’s capable of cloning itself, its harvested only through October to mid-November.

Each crocus flower yields only 3 stigmas, which are then picked by hand and dried. Each stigma strand makes a strand of saffron.

Why Is Saffron Expensive?

By the ounce, high-quality saffron costs more than gold, making it the most expensive spices (per pound) in the world.

Saffron costs around 5000$ per pound, behind vanilla pods which are around 600$ per pound.

A maximum of only three strands can be extracted from a single flower, and it must then be carefully dried.

Each undried strand is 0.00215 grams. To accumulate a single pound of saffron (16 ounces or 454 grams), it takes roughly 70,000 flowers.

What Are The Benefits of Saffron?

Here’s the list of health benefits of saffron:

1. Saffron is a powerful antioxidant

2. Protects Against Cells Damage

3. May Treat Mood Disorders and Symptoms of Depression

4. Reduces Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

5. Saffron Boosts Libido

6. Promotes Weight Loss

7. Reduces The Risk of Cancer

Articles and Sources

1. Avicenna J Phytomed. (2015 September 05) The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review

2. J Integr Med. (2013 November 06) Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

3. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. (2014 October 04) Saffron (Crocus sativus L.): As an Antidepressant

4. Pharmacogn Rev. (2013 January 13) An overview on saffron, phytochemicals, and medicinal properties

5. Nutrients. (2019 May 05) Saffron: The Golden Spice with Therapeutic Properties on Digestive Diseases

6. Iran J Basic Med Sci. (2017 February 02) Toxicology effects of saffron and its constituents: a review

7. Iran J Basic Med Sci. (2016 May 05) Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review

8. J Integr Med. (2013 November 06) Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) and Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

9. Pharmacol Res. (2018 November 28) Clinical Evidence on the Effects of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review Meta-Analysis

10. Pharm Biol. (2013 April 09) Role of Saffron and Its Constituents on Cancer Chemoprevention

11. Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol. (2016 May 01) Short-term Outcomes of Saffron Supplementation in Patients with Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized Trial

12. Planta Med. (2019 January 01) The Efficacy of Saffron in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Depression: A Meta-analysis

13. Hum Psychopharmacol. (2014 November 06) Saffron (Crocus Sativus) for Depression: A Systematic Review of Clinical Studies and Examination of Underlying Antidepressant Mechanisms of Action

14. J Integr Med. (2017 December 29) A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Examining the Effectiveness of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes

15. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2012 October 04) Effect of Saffron on Fluoxetine-Induced Sexual Impairment in Men: Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

16. Avicenna J Phytomed. (2019 September 05) Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) on sexual dysfunction among men and women: A systematic review and meta-analysis

17. Rev Obstet Gynecol. (2008 May 02) Studies on the Physiology and Alternative Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome

18. BJOG. (2008 March 04) Crocus Sativus L. (Saffron) in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Randomised and Placebo-Controlled Trial

19. Antioxidants (Basel). (2013 December 04) Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug

20. Iran Red Crescent Med J. (2016 October 10) Effect of Saffron (Fan Hong Hua) On the Readiness of The Uterine Cervix In Term Pregnancy: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

21. Pharmacogn Rev. (2010 July 04) Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review

22. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. (2014 February 01) Saffron Reduced Toxic Effects of its Constituent, Safranal, in Acute and Subacute Toxicities in Rats

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